For many years, the Xia Dynasty was thought to be a part of a myth that the Chinese tell as part of their history. The Xia Dynasty was in oral histories, but no archaeological evidence was found of it until 1959. Excavations at Erlitou, in the city of Yanshi, uncovered what was most likely a capital of the Xia Dynasty. The site showed that the people were direct ancestors of the Longshan and were predecessors of the Shang. Radiocarbon dates from this site indicate that they existed from 2100 to 1800 B.C. Despite this new archaeological evidence of the Xia, they are not universally accepted as a true dynasty.
The Xia were agrarian people, with bronze weapons and pottery. The ruling families used elaborate and dramatic rituals to confirm their power to govern. The rulers often acted as shamans, communicating with spirits for help and guidance.
Rulers of Xia Dynasty
The following table lists the rulers of Xia Dynasty according to Sima Qian's Shiji (The Records of the Grand Historian). Unlike Sima's list of Shang Dynasty kings, which is closely matched by inscriptions on oracle bones from late in that period, records of Xia rulers have not yet been found in archeological excavations.
Also Yu the Great (大禹; Dà Yǔ)
Son of Yu
Restored the corrupt Xia Dynasty
Son of Mang
Also Lu Gui (履癸, Lǚ Guǐ)